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Drug Testing in Supercross

by Racer X Virtual Trainer

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Article Originally posted in March, 2009. Some updates have been added.

Two of our sports top riders have been tested and both passed. Good news for motocross!

photo: Steve Cox

In today's motocross world, the economic and intangible rewards for extraordinary athletic achievements and winning performances are substantial. Therefore, there is a significant incentive for athletes to maximize their on-track performance, which is the paramount objective of sports competition. Virtually all athletes use various artificial means to enhance their body's natural performance while playing their respective sports. Some substances and training techniques are not characterized as "unfair" competitive advantages, even if they are not universally available to all athletes because of their differing economic resources. It generally is permissible for athletes to ingest nonmuscle building dietary supplements that facilitate athletic performance such as carbohydrates, electrolyte drinks, energy bars, vitamins, and minerals--and they often are encouraged to do so.

However, athletes' usage of federally controlled substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids, which include "designer steroids" such as THC (i.e., tetrahydrogestrinone), and steroid precursors is characterized as doping by sports governing bodies and, if detected, punishable by sanctions. Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic variations of the male hormone testosterone that mimic its effects by having muscle-building (anabolic) and masculinizing (androgenic) characteristics with potentially harmful health consequences.

I Ask....they Answer
If you are a regular follower of the Virtual Trainer website, in particular the trainer talk interviews, you are aware that I am a strong proponent for random drug testing in motocross. No matter whom I interview the last topic for discussion is always about Performance-enhancing drug (PEDs) use in motocross. I come right out and ask each and every person whether they think riders are using PEDs, if the AMA should be testing for PEDs, and what the consequences should be if a rider fails. I urge you to check out the Interview Archives and read what some of our sports most regarded personalities think about the topic. People like David Bailey, Rick Johnson, Aldon Baker, Davi Millsaps, David Pingree, and even James Stewart have all answered these questions. Their answers may surprise you and some even go so far as swearing that they know of riders doping!

Until recently (2009), the AMA has only tested for recreational drugs. The level of fitness that the riders are achieving demands oversight from the AMA not only to deter guys from risking their lives with performance-enhancing drugs but also to keep our sport clean. Sports like cycling and professional baseball have been stigmatized forever do to the poor choices of their athletes. Professional motocross is a rising sport and the last thing we need is for people to doubt the true athleticism and integrity of our riders. It is always easier to keep a sport clean than to have the monumental task of cleaning up a dirty sport: ask anyone close to cycling.

The Demise of Other Sports
If you question the importance of this issue just look at some of the athletes who have had their careers and sometimes their lives ruined from using PEDs and what it has done to their sport.

Canadian sprinter,  Ben Johnson was subsequently stripped of his gold medal and world record and banned from competition for two years after testing positive for the anabolic steroid stanozolol in the 1988 Olympic Games. The disgrace of the event was a black eye on Canadian amateur sport and pushed the drugs-in-sport issue to the forefront like never before.

Enthusiasts say the Tour de France is the biggest, hardest, most grueling race there is, a prize so precious that cyclists will do anything to win. And they have. In most people's eyes cycling is the dirtiest sport around with allegations of drug use in every single rider including 7-time winner Lance Armstrong. Cycling has imposed drug testing since the 1960s, when the English rider Tom Simpson got so hopped-up on speed (and cognac) that he keeled over and died during a Tour stage. Over the years, the sport has accumulated a rich database of cheats, who range from the lowly and anonymous to some of the best in the sport.

In baseball, between Mark McGwire's andro usage and Ken Caminiti's revelation in Sports Illustrated about steroids in baseball, the sport has been in image crisis mode for the past 15 years. In May of 2002, Jose Canseco announced his retirement from baseball, and as a parting shot he said 85 per cent of all baseball players used steroids. Later, Canseco admitted to taking steroids himself. Later that month, Sports Illustrated published an investigative report describing professional baseball as "a pharmacological trade show." In the article, former National League MVP Ken Caminiti told the magazine "at least half the guys are using steroids." Another prominent scar on the sport is the connection between San Francisco Giants left fielder Barry Bonds and the nutritional supplements company BALCO, the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative, which is reportedly the source of the designer steroid, THG. Several major league players appeared before a federal grand jury investigating BALCO, including Bonds, who shattered the single-season home run record in 2001, and New York Yankees first baseman Jason Giambi.

Remember Marion Jones? Who could forget after she won five medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia? She has since agreed to forfeit all medals and prizes dating back to September 2000 after admitting that she took performance-enhancing drugs. The United States Anti-Doping Agency stated that the sanction "also requires disqualification of all her competitive results obtained after September 1, 2000, and forfeiture of all medals, results, points and prizes". On October 5, 2007, Jones formally pled guilty to lying to federal agents in the BALCO steroid investigation in the U.S. District Court. On January 11, 2008, Jones was sentenced to 6 months in jail. She began her sentence on March 7, 2008 and was released on September 5, 2008. In a press conference on the steps of the courthouse following her October 5 guilty plea, the disgraced athlete tearfully apologized, saying "...with a great amount of shame...I stand before you and tell you that I have betrayed your trust...and you have the right to be angry with me... I have let my country down and I have let myself down."

And if that list isn't enough evidence that the AMA is doing the right thing by testing, check out what the Mayo Clinic has to say and the bad things that PED's can do to your body.

Common Thread in Sport
Cycling, baseball, motocross, and other sports have more in common than you might think. All three sports put their athletes through absurdly grueling seasons, 162 games for major-leaguers, more than 100 days of racing over eight months for most pro cyclists, and between supercross, the outdoor nationals, and off-season testing, the motocross season is nearly 12 months long. While both cycling and baseball are team sports, both also prize individual performances and records just like motocross. Finally, all three sports are phenomenally difficult, with physical demands like timing, strength, and coordination in baseball, sheer speed and endurance in cycling, and all of the above for motocross. In other words, cyclists, ballplayers, and riders have much to gain from taking steroids and other performance-boosting substances. And in motocross it's not just about being more fit to race; PEDs aid enormously in the recovery process from general fatigue and injury allowing a rider more time on the bike week in and week out.

Testing in Supercross
In NASCAR, the top cars are inspected and it has long been the rule in motocross that the top three finishing bikes get tested. In 2009 at both the San Francisco and New Orleans Supercross', we saw the AMA take a huge step forward in erasing doubt and insuring our sports legitimacy by conducting random drug test in accordance with the FIM Anti-Doping Code. Following the San Fran main event, James Stewart, Ryan Villopoto, and Andrew Short were met by chaperones from the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA). The USADA is recognized as the official anti-doping agency in the U.S., and they handle anti-doping watchdog duties for U.S. athletes competing in the Olympic, Pan-Am, and Paralympic sports. At New Orleans, Chad Reed, Broc Hepler, and Kevin Windham were tested. For the record, neither prohibited substances nor markers of the use of prohibited methods were found in any of the tested samples.

Most recently, it appears that Ryan Villopoto and Tommy Searle were tested at their homes. Check out the latest talk on Twitter (2/8/12).

@ryan_villopoto2: Loved the visit from WADA #worldantidopingagency at 10:30 as i was about to go to bed.

@BTNFLY (Jimmy Button): @CRtwotwo @ryan_villopoto2 The more testing the better. Proves the hatters wrong.

@tommysearle100 Wow just had 3 doping officers turn up at my front door at 6am!! To do a random urine test for the FIM world championship! that's kinda crazy

The Process
Chaperones from the USADA notify the riders of the impending test, have them sign the appropriate forms, and then accompany them throughout the process. The riders have 60-minutes from the time of notification to be ready for the test giving them time to complete podium appearances and interviews. Riders can be selected for any reason not just results. Meaning every single rider on the track can be picked and required to give a sample not just the top finishers.

Two urine samples are collected and sent to a World Anti-Doping Association (WADA)-accredited laboratory. Now that the AMA has adopted the FIM Anti-Doping Code, riders are screened for both recreational and performance-enhancing drugs. The list of banned substances takes a PhD to understand and can be found in Appendix 3 of the 2009 Anti-Doping Code. If you take the time to read through the list, you might be surprised to find out that riders are tested for obvious drugs like anabolic steroids and HGH but many prescription inhalants and nasal drops can be illegal if above a certain urine concentration or without an approved Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE). And yes, recreational drugs like pot, cocaine, and alcohol are listed as banned substances and tested for along with the list of PEDs.

Once the samples are taken, they are are marked with a security code that protects the identity of the athlete and then shipped to a WADA accredited laboratory for testing. Upon completetion of testing, results are sent to the AMA and FIM.

Want to know more on exactly how PEDs work? Check out this website!
Other Points of Interest
Interestingly enough, I talked to James Stewart's trainer, Aldon Baker and he indicated that so far neither he nor James has ever been given anything by the AMA to educate the riders as to the testing and possible consequences (this was back in 2009). As a matter of fact, to his knowledge, they have never officially been notified of James' results from San Francisco. Aldon is operating on what he knows from his experience on the international circuit with his MotoGP rider, Nicky Hayden where drug testing is routine.

A few other interesting facts are that testing may happen at any time or place including away from the race track. So that means that they can come to your front door on a Tuesday afternoon or Sundy at 6 am and request a sample! Testing at the races is random, however facilities have to be set aside at each round whether testing takes place or not. Riders and teams are not notified in advance of the test nor are the riders told which substance is actually being tested. To date, all test samples have been urine tests (not blood) and only the Supercross class falls under the FIM jurisdiction. The Lites class is governed by the AMA Substance Abuse Policy and is not currently being tested for PEDs.


Between the Motos Interview with
Kevin Crowther (Director of AMA Supercross) on Racer X (1/12/11)

Racer X Online: There has been a lot of talk about drug testing. I hear that you guys have expanded your program?
Kevin Crowther
: That’s correct. We use the WADA Program (World Anti-Doping Association), and we have expanded our coverage to both the Supercross and the Lites class. Last year, WADA only applied to the Supercross class. The program is administered by an independent third party company and has nothing to do with us or our employees. Basically, we support it fully, but have nothing to do with the nuts and bolts of it. We never know which event they will come to, or who they will test. We leave six event passes and parking passes at Will Call and Feld sets aside a drug testing room for them in case they show up. Last year I think they came to two events. It’s a really good program, and it covers both the Supercross class and the Lites class for 2011. On the FIM site, there is a ton of information on there if anyone wants to get more information.


Check out this bit of info as Kevin Windam talks about his unexpected difficulties after his New Orleans test.

I have had several long discussions with Aldon regarding this topic and his answer is always the same; he believes that testing should be conducted, the consequences of failing should be harsh, and the top three riders from each race should be tested. Aldon was quoted as saying, "I think it's good. We've all spoken about it, and we think that this sport is at a high enough level that it needs to be checked. But I think the top three should be checked every weekend, and at random, and they need to keep on it. It's something that needs to be addressed, so that no one is cutting corners."

In my opinion, the AMA was long over due in stepping up to the plate and doing what is right for the sport. As a trainer, I feel that drug testing is an absolute must-have policy to ensure a level playing field for all riders. I applaud the AMA's efforts and sincerely hope that the good character and legitimacy of motocross is validated by clean test results. Drug testing is a costly endeavor, but not nearly as costly as having motocross viewed as a doped-up sport where the participants can only achieve greatness through enhanced means. Not to mention the damage and cost an athlete will experience with potential health problems after their riding days are done.

That's it for now, until next time, good luck with your training and remember, if you have a question, log on to the Virtual Trainer Expert Forum and have your question answered by a panel of experts. In addition, be sure and check out the Racer X Virtual Trainer archive section. Your complete one-stop information zone for motocross fitness. VT Signature

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Discussion

  1. Gravatar
    b787tech February 10, 2012 at 8:12 am

    "Dopers" are upfront losers and pig-headed cowards. But...THEY don't care. A win is a win is a win...in their book. What really cracks me up is the comparison of todays race winners and they can be interviewed within moments after a long main event. (SX or MX) Back in the days when PED didn't exists, I can easily recall the likes of the very best in our sports virtually collapsed in the pits with exhaustion. Granted, many aspects of training have changed dramatically and especially that surround cardiovascular and legs but...come on today's podium stars! Who the heck do you think you're kidding!

    Without even a reasonable doubt...these guys...and possibly even gals...are taking a cowardly cue from the likes of ALL of the Tour-de-France cheaters!

  2. Gravatar
    b787tech February 10, 2012 at 8:18 am

    Addendum: The AMA is JUST AS COWARDLY when it comes to upsetting ANY norm in our sport. In fact...in many aspects...the face of guilt is personified by the folks from Ohio! The AMA has turned their own cowardly backs in fear of upsetting this norm...and whatever the norm might be! If it's good for the deep pockets of the promoter and the entertainment of the masses...it's good for the AMA!

  3. Gravatar
    Racer X Virtual Trainer February 10, 2012 at 1:38 pm

    b787tech - To assume that the guys on the podium are using PED's just because they are in better shape than guys "back in the day" is....and forgive me if this offends you....but that is just plain ignorant. If Aldon Baker, Coach Seiji, or Charles Dao's guys ever test positive for PED's AND the trainer knew about it, I will shut this web site down and NEVER again be a part of the sport in any way. That is how confident I am that none of those trainers are cheating.

    As far as your comments on the AMA, I'm not sure of your credentials to speak so brashly of their policies. I know one thing for certain. I don't work at the AMA and I don't follow their policies closely enough to condemn them as you have. If you can point to specific instances where the AMA has been so cowardly in your opinion, I would be interested to listen.

    And you might notice that I deleted the last part of your comment. I don't stand for that sort of nonsense on this website. I welcome your comments and you certainly do not have to agree with me. You can tell me how bad you think the AMA is run or even that this website or Racer X sucks. But you better be able to back up you statements with facts and not "just because you think so." But either way, please present your comments in an intelligent manor or find another website to vent on.

  4. Gravatar
    jamesjames.hall 5050@gmail.com January 29, 2013 at 10:10 pm

    The use of steroids and dont forget hgh are most often used to prepare for up coming seasons.speeding the healing time of injuries,and recovery time between traning sessions(motos,stages,exc) Its not about if its used or not its how many and who?

  5. Gravatar
    jamesjames.hall 5050@gmail.com January 30, 2013 at 1:19 am

    The use of peds is ramped! Motorcyclist, my self included might be somewhat out of touch with how widespread its use is. chances are most of us know someone who is using it in one form or another. Motocross is not the exemption! I feel the level of competition & conditioning is second to none literally.filling a cup with urine is a joke right ? trainers docters and pharmaceutical manufactures need results just like teams & riders. Its not a million dollar industry any more guys its billions. Its like this, if you had a four year contract worth 10 mil you broke lets say three vertebrates what would you do to come back in six months? Better yet what would you do to be #1?

  6. Gravatar
    Is It Enought November 18, 2013 at 8:19 am

    @Virtual Trainer,

    Is what the AMA/ FIM and MX Sports doing really enough?

    Crowther says in 2011 he "thinks" they (USADA/WADA) tested or came out twice?

    Last time I checked there are 17 rounds of SX and 12 rounds of Outdoors. Testing 2 out of 29 doesn't seem like they are very serious, although I understand MX sports controls the outdoor part of the racing and is a different entity.

    Until the AMA/FIM and MX sports becomes more transparent and posts what, when and how many athletes are being tested, we are all sitting here in the dark.

    Marion Jones, Mark McGwire, Lance Armstrong, Jan Ullrich, Ryder Hesdal etc all "never" tested positive, yet we now know they along with many were doped to the gills.

    To think or say that PED's are not being used in MX with the amount of money, fame and fortune on the line would be ignorant at best. And the governing bodies may not to even want to uncover what is being used and by who, because it will hit them in their pocket book.

    Your own David Pingree even chimed in a few years back that he has first hand knowledge of "Top" riders using things like HGH, printed right here on Racer X. Ping seems like a fairly reliable source and insider who would know or hear of such things, but I haven't heard of the AMA or FIM really cracking down on testing for HGH. Instead it seems they are searching for more things like recreational drugs from the urine tests they are providing...........News Flash, The Dogger and Chicken have been retired for years now! Lets get serious about PED testing!

    Until "they" test the top 3 and one random at every event in both the lites and Supercross class, it appears the AMA, FIM and others involved are not really serious about erasing any doubt or creating credibility about PED's and the sport of MX.

    I hope I am wrong about all of this?

  7. Gravatar
    Racer X Virtual Trainer November 18, 2013 at 8:55 am

    I agree and stand firm on the side of complete testing. It will happen (in my opinion) sooner rather than later. But in the relatively small world of motocross, there are much bigger fish to fry (again in my opinion) like head injuries, sound issues, putting butts in the stands, etc. As a trainer, I 100% believe that PEDs are being used in MX but I also believe 100% that it is NOT a significant factor in the outcome of races. I also do not think it is "widespread". Skill in motocross still trumps everything else. To prove this, I'm willing to bet an out of shape RC could place top 15 in both MX and SX right now. And along those same lines, you could dope Andrew Short to the gills, and he will still place 5-10.

  8. Gravatar
    Is It Enought November 18, 2013 at 10:01 am

    @Virtual,

    Agreed that its a "skill" based sport, unlike cycling and others perhaps. But wouldn't you agree that along with negative affects for the athletes, the industry could be facing a problem if this gets out of check?

    Isn't it better to tackle the topic now before it gets "widespread" as opposed to letting it run unchecked like we saw in Cycling, Baseball etc?

    Also what about the psychological effects on up and coming racers who may hear "this and that" about PED's being used by "top" guys, a lack of serious testing etc. What does that encourage our next generation to do?

    Doesn't that train of thought that we have "bigger" issues to focus on, add to the problem? Its bad enough these "kids" need suspension, motors, trainers, motorhomes etc, and now a culture is being created that PED's are just another part of the program needed to "make" it in MX?

    Good point on Short, just like we could make the point you couldn't win or probably even finish a Tour if we had you on a program either......that's just part of life.

    Just wondering if two wrongs make a right here? Meaning even though its a skill sport, even though we have other issues to tackle, why sweep this under the rug now?

    Thanks for the feedback.

  9. Gravatar
    Racer X Virtual Trainer November 20, 2013 at 10:33 am

    I agree with all your points and led my last comment with "I agree and stand firm on the side of complete testing." I was just trying to paint a complete picture of the topic. If it were up to me, there would be complete testing and I believe we are headed in that direction.

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